Probiotics are living microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefits on the host. Probiotics are one of the more efficient methods of pathogen control and have not detrimental effects to the environment as antibiotics. The benefits include improved gut histomorphology, increase in beneficial microbiota, improved immunity, enhanced growth and laying performance.
Probiotics can be provided as a live microbial feed supplement for poultry, also known as direct fed microbials (DFMs), in the poultry diet or water or can be administered to the developing embryo using in-ovo feeding technology. The use of probiotics in poultry has increased steadily over the years due to the higher demand for antibiotic-free poultry. The probiotics market was reached 80 million USD in 2018 and is projected to reach 125 million USD by 2025 at a compound annual growth rate of 7.7% (Ahuja et all 2020).
Bacillus spp, Lactobacillusspp, Streptococcusspp, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactococcus spp and yeast Candida spp. are commonly used probiotics strains. Bacillus spp. are producing heat-resistance spores. This make it possible to make feed added with probiotics which is also made using a granulation process. Multi-strain probiotics act on different sites and provide different modes of action that create synergistic effects. The criteria for selecting probiotic strains include tolerance to gastrointestinal conditions, the ability to adhere to the gastrointestinal mucosa, and the competitive exclusion of pathogens. Probiotics should have survival ability in manufacturing, transportation, storage and application processes.
Properties of Good Probiotics:
- Probiotic must be a normal inhabitant of the gut and capable to adhere gastro-intestinal epithelium.
- Probiotic microorganisms must be able to survive inhigh temperature.
- Probiotic microorganisms must be able to survive in aerobic as well as anaerobic environment.
- Probiotic microorganisms must be tolerance to low pH and presence of bile acids.
- Probiotic microorganisms must be non-pathogenic and non-toxic to the host.
- Probiotics must exert its beneficial effects like enhanced nutrition and increased immune response
- Probiotics must be sustainable under normal storage conditions.
Mechanism of action:
A. Probiotics helps to maintaining normal gut health and intestinal microflora by
- Enhancement of the epithelial barrier with releasing of gut protective metabolites like arginine, glutamine, short-chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids etc.
- Competitive exclusion through increases adhesion to intestinal mucosa and inhibit pathogen adhesion.
- Production of antimicrobial substances like bacteriocins which helps to reduce pathogenic bacteria.
- Alteration in gene expression in pathogenic micro-organisms
B. Probiotics supplementation alters digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients by
- Increasing digestive enzyme activity.
- Decreasing bacterial enzyme activity
C. Probiotics supplementation developing Immunomodulation by
- Enhancing serum and intestinal antibodies production against foreign antigens.
- Enhancing secretion of cytokines, lymphokines and anti-inflammatory mediators, resulting modulation of immunity.
Benefits of Probiotics:
- Promotes optimal development of gut microbiota especially post-hatch.
- Re-establishes balanced gut microﬂora during post-antibiotic application.
- Reduces incidence of wet litter and pasty vent.
- Improves weight gain and feed conversion in broilers.
- Helps to maintain consistent egg production in layers and breeders.
- Effectively reduces early chick morbidity and mortality.
- Effectively replaces AGPs.
- Zero withdrawal period and can be administered throughout the life cycle.
CosBac™ is a uniquely blended, poultry-speciﬁc, multi-species synbiotic product that promotes development of beneﬁcial gut microﬂora through the combined action of carefully selected probiotic microorganisms and prebiotics. It comprisesBacillus subtilis (PLSSC) 5×109 CFU/g, Bacillus coagulans(LBSC) 3×109 CFU/g and Lactobacillus acidophilus 2×109 CFU/g with guaranteed total potency of ≥ 10×109 CFU/g along with Prebiotics.